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Guide To Peripheral Neuropathy
A five-part guide to peripheral neuropathy (damage to the peripheral nerves). More than 100 types of peripheral neuropathy have been identified, each with its own set of symptoms, causes, and treatment. Since every peripheral nerve has a specialized function in a specific part of the body, a wide array of symptoms can occur when nerves are damaged.
Neuralgias (Nerve pain)
The causes of neuralgias are varied. Chemicals can cause nerve irritation. Inflammation, trauma (including surgery), compression by adjacent structures (tumors or inflamed tissues), and infections can all lead to neuralgias. In many cases, however, the cause is unknown or unidentifiable. Neuralgias are most common in elderly persons, but they can occur at any age.
What Are Pinched Nerves?
Pinched nerves develop because of an injury to a nerve or group of nerves. The injury may be due to compression or constriction.
Peripheral neuropathy is failure of the nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord. This produces symptoms like pain, loss of sensation, and inability to control muscles.
Mononeuropathy involves damage or destruction of an isolated nerve or nerve group. It is a type of peripheral neuropathy. Mononeuropathy is most often caused by damage to a local area resulting from injury or trauma, although occasionally systemic disorders may cause isolated nerve damage.
Mononeuritis multiplex is a disorder characterized by simultaneous or sequential damage to more than one nerve group.
Neuropathy Secondary To Drugs
Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a condition where there is a loss of sensation (or movement) in a part of the body. It is associated with use of a medication that can damage nerves. Many medications can be associated with the development of neuropathy.
Tibial Nerve Dysfunction
Tibial nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy. It occurs when there is damage to the tibial nerve, one of the branches of the sciatic nerve of the leg. The tibial nerve supplies movement and sensation to the calf and foot muscles.
The Tibial Nerve (Image)
The tibial nerve is commonly injured by fractures or other injury to the back of the knee or the lower leg
Brachial plexopathy is decreased movement or sensation in the arm and shoulder, caused by impaired function of the brachial plexus (a nerve area that affects the arm. It occurs when there is damage to the brachial plexus, an area where a nerve bundle from the spinal cord splits into the individual arm nerves.
Brachial plexus (Image)
The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that originate from the neck region and branch off to give rise to most of the nerves that control movement in the upper limb. Injuries to the brachial plexus are common and can be debilitating.
Axillary Nerve Dysfunction
Axillary nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy. It occurs when there is damage to the axillary nerve, which supplies the deltoid muscles of the shoulder. It is not a specific, separate disease, but is caused by many conditions that can damage the axillary nerve.
Damaged Axillary Nerve (Image)
Conditions associated with axillary nerve dysfunction include fracture of the humerus (upper arm bone), pressure from casts or splints, and improper use of crutches.
Radial Nerve Dysfunction
Radial nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy. It occurs when there is damage to the radial nerve, which travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm.
Radial Nerve Dysfunction (Image)
The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. It also provides extension to the wrist, and helps in movement and sensation of the wrist and hand.
Sciatic Nerve Dysfunction
Sciatica is a form of peripheral neuropathy. It occurs when there is damage to the sciatic nerve, located in the back of the leg. This nerve controls the muscles of the back of the knee and lower leg and provides sensation to the back of the thigh, part of the lower leg and the sole of the foot.
Sciatic nerve damage (Image)
The sciatic nerve is located in the back of the leg. It supplies the muscles of the back of the knee and lower leg.
Alcoholic neuropathy is a disorder involving decreased nerve functioning caused by damage that results from excessive drinking of alcohol.
Autonomic neuropathy is a group of symptoms caused by damage to nerves supplying the internal body structures that regulate functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, bowel and bladder emptying, and digestion.
Common Peroneal Nerve Dysfunction
Common peroneal nerve dysfunction is a disorder caused by damage to the peroneal nerve, characterized by loss of movement or sensation in the foot and leg. The peroneal nerve is a branching of the sciatic nerve, which supplies movement and sensation to the lower leg, foot and toes.
Common peroneal nerve dysfunction (Image)
Common peroneal nerve dysfunction is a disorder characterized by loss of movement or sensation of the foot and leg caused by damage to the peroneal nerve.
Distal Median Nerve Dysfunction
Distal median nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy (nerve dysfunction outside the central nervous system) affecting movement of or sensation in the hand, caused by damage to the distal median nerve.
Femoral Nerve Dysfunction
Femoral nerve dysfunction is a loss of movement or sensation in the leg (peripheral neuropathy) caused by damage to the femoral nerve. The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation to the front of the thigh and part of the lower leg.
Ulnar Nerve Dysfunction
Ulnar nerve dysfunction involves impaired movement or sensation in the wrist and hand caused by damage to the ulnar nerve. Ulnar nerve dysfunction is a common form of peripheral neuropathy.
Laryngeal Nerve Damage
Damage to one or both of the nerves attached to the larynx (voice box) can result in loss of voice or obstruction of breathing. It is uncommon but may occur as a complication of surgery in the neck or chest, or placement of a breathing tube in the windpipe (endotracheal tube) or during positioning of the head and neck prior to the placement.
Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV)
Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test of the speed of conduction of impulses through a nerve.
A nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of a nerve for examination.
Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a disorder in which multiple parts of the nervous system experience degeneration. The term encompasses three syndromes (Shy-Drager syndrome, striatonigral degeneration, and olivopontocerebellar atrophy) which were once thought to be unrelated but are now understood to all be parts of the same disorder.