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Enbrel (etanercept) - What You Need to Know

First TNF Blocker Approved for Rheumatoid Arthritis in 1998


Updated June 27, 2014

Enbrel (etanercept) - What You Need to Know
Photo by Zhe Zhang (stock.xchng)

Enbrel Belongs to What Drug Class?:

Enbrel (etanercept) is a biologic response modifier (recombinant human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor fusion protein). Enbrel is genetically engineered to be like the receptors in the body which bind to tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha). Enbrel works by soaking up excess TNF before it can attach to natural receptors.

TNF-alpha is a cytokine involved in the inflammatory process. Excess TNF-alpha has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis.

What Other Drugs are Similar to Enbrel?:

Enbrel was the first anti-TNF drug and was approved in 1998 for rheumatoid arthritis and certain inflammatory types of arthritis. Remicade (infliximab) was the second TNF inhibitor to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1999. Humira (adalimumab) was approved in 2002. Simponi (golimumab) was approved by the FDA on April 24, 2009.  Cimzia (certolizumab pegol) was FDA-approved on May 14, 2009.

Enbrel is derived by introducing human DNA into Chinese hamster ovary cells and creating a genetically engineered protein. Remicade uses human and mouse proteins to create a chimeric monoclonal antibody. Humira uses fully human proteins and phage display technology to produce monoclonal antibodies.

How is Enbrel Administered?:

Enbrel is administered as a subcutaneous injection once or twice weekly (3 or 4 days apart). The dosage prescribed depends on the condition being treated. Enbrel must be prescribed by your doctor and requires insurance pre-authorization. Enbrel can be used in combination with methotrexate in patients who do not respond to methotrexate alone.

Enbrel is Prescribed to Treat What Conditions?:

Enbrel has been approved to treat moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, moderate to severe juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

What is the Recommended Dose of Enbrel?:

For adults with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis the usual dose is 50 mg per week, as a subcutaneous injection using a 50 mg/ml single-use prefilled syringe. There are 25 mg vials of Enbrel also available. The dosage of Enbrel for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is based on their weight. A once-weekly dosing option exists for children weighing 138 lbs or more. For plaque psoriasis, 50 mg twice a week for 3 months, stepped down to once weekly.

Are There Special Concerns or Contraindications for Enbrel?:

Enbrel is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women. Patients with serious infections should not be treated with Enbrel. People prone to infection or those with uncontrolled diabetes should avoid using Enbrel. Patients with conditions of the central nervous system should also avoid Enbrel.

What are the Common Side Effects Associated with Enbrel?:

Common side effects associated with Enbrel include:

  • injection site reactions
  • upper respiratory infections including sinus infections
  • headaches
  • dizziness
  • runny nose
  • throat irritat

What Serious Adverse Reactions Can Occur with Enbrel?:

Enbrel may increase the risk of serious infections. In patients being treated with Enbrel, there also have been reports of multiple sclerosis, myelitis (inflammation of spinal cord), optic neuritis (inflammation of optic nerve), and pancytopenia (low blood counts for red cells, white cells, platelets).

How Should I Store or Travel with Enbrel? :

Enbrel must be stored at a temperature of 36 to 46 degrees Farenheit. Enbrel should never be stored in the freezer. According to enbrel.com, if traveling for more than a few hours, you should wrap Enbrel in bubble wrap and place it in a travel cooler packed with with ice. Add a thermometer to the cooler and check every few hours. You can obtain a free travel cooler for Enbrel by calling Enliven Services at 1-888-4ENBREL. If traveling by air, check with the airline for their requirements.


Arthritis Without Pain, Scott J. Zashin, M.D., 2004

Enbrel - The Pill Book, 10th Edition

Medication Guide. Enbrel.com

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